are Articulation disorders?
Use of articulators (lips, tongue, etc.) to produce
speech sounds. It also describes a person's ability to make sounds,
as in "her articulation contained several errors."
When should my child be able
to say each speech sound?
There is a range of development for each speech sound;
however, children should be able to produce each speech sound by
8 years of age.
What are phonological processes?
Phonological processes refer to the rules children
use to simplify their speech. These rules can include many sounds
instead of just one and can make the child’s speech unintelligible.
Processes disappearing by
the 3rd birthday:
syllable deletion: simplifying multi-syllable words by
deleting a syllable (tel.e.phone becomes "te.phone" or
bu.tter.fly becomes "bu.fly")
consonant deletion: not saying the ending consonants of
words (cat become "ca" or cup becomes "cu")
replacing back sounds "k" and "g" with front sounds "t" and "d"
(candy becomes "tandy" or frog becomes "frod")
assimilation: a consonant in a word becomes similar to
another consonant in the word (bed becomes "beb"
or thank become "gank")
Devoicing: replacing a voiced consonant with a devoiced
consonant (job becomes "jop" or mad becomes "mat")
persisting after age 3:
cluster reduction: reducing a consonant cluster to one
consonant (blue becomes "boo" or truck becomes
"tuck"). Should be gone by age 4.
replacing a liquid ("r" or "l") with a glide ("w" or "y") (play
becomes "pway" or run becomes "won"). Should be
gone by age 5.
stopping the airflow in a sound (soap becomes "toap" or puzzle becomes
"puddle"). Depending on which sound
is stopped, should be gone between ages 3 and 5.
of "v" and "z" should be gone by 3 ˝ years
of "sh" "j" "ch" should be gone by 4 ˝ years
of "th" should be gone by 5 years
of "f" and "s" should be gone by 3 years
inserting an extra sound into a word (blue becomes "balue" or color
Achieve Hearing & Rehabilitation helps patients overcome their
articulation and phonological processing disorders. If you or someone
you know demonstrates any signs and symptoms of an articulation
and phonological processing disorder. please call us at 972-608-0416
to discuss how Achieve can help.
Achieve Hearing & Rehabilitation is a speech and hearing clinic
in Plano, Texas. We offer speech language pathology and audiological
services for children and adults of all ages. Achieve is in-network
with Aetna, Cigna, BlueCrossBlueShield, Medicare, and United Healthcare.
We can help obtain information about your policy to determine if
services are covered under. Please call us at 972-608-0416.